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ʹСǶһָ꣬Զ˶ȡʳֳ෽涼ҪӰ죬ͬʱһָԸ巢˫ԼȻѡѡȷоҲҪ͵ݻǴͻСͻзdzҪݻ塣 

ڿݻУСͻټȴʮֹؼΪһҪȺԴйأ޽СͻԴ̡͵Ĵͻձ顣ѧҿ˿շ(Copes rule)Ϊݻʷͱ, Ǵ͵ѡơȻͬѧ߶Կշвͬ, һЩоҲշ򲢲ձȺͨԲͬʱڡͬʹСݷ֤ڲݻ֧ϵ˴ͻԿѧһΪշձڿࡣ 

;޴ǴԵľͻĿȺ 

йؿͻоڶ, ǶԿͻԭȻ˽, ͻΪһѽݻѧ⡣Science ־ڴ125֮ѡ125սԵĿѧǰ, һЩΪʲôӴλС 

ôʲôص˸ľͻأ 

ֱӵоǷоԡоʾͻһ3: ʡӳٳ, ߶߽ϡ磬ѧѧEricksonԱģʽоָĴ׿˹;޴ʵļӿ졣ԾоʾٵҲͻҪԭ 

׿˹;޴ԭҪΪ졣 Erickson et.al 2014 

һʣʲô˾ͿΪʲôֳʱ󣿴ͳ۵ΪǻﱾͬõĽϢϢءѧɡ¶ȸߵ͡ʳﹹɵȶ෽滷ؿܻԿݻDZӰ졣ֻӰ͵ҲҵȻͬȺͻĻԭͬͻҲˡˣĿǰѧձΪȺľͻһһ黷ؽ͡ 

ѧͼӿ֣ȥۿľͻԭ򡣴ѧĽǶȣһϵѡƣ, Щƽ, ʧоΪͻܺ͸ЧأҲоΪЧʹͻƺءͻоӦôѰģתʳͿԣԼʹСȡʳѡԵ̬ģ͵̽Ѱһ3޽Ⱥоû֧Чʺʹ;ԡоԱӺѧĽǶֿ̽ľͻоԱΪ, ͻһǰ޽Ҳϵͳ, Ϊľͻṩһйදϸ̬оʾ, ֵĹϸԴද, ܴٽ˹, Ϊͻһܵԭûķβͱ޴Ĺϸ, ȻһȺҲоʹԣЩо, ͬȺľͻؿܲͬٲȫһ 

ĿǰľͻоΪϸ룬ڽȡҪĽչѧҷ֣еСͷӳľ㷺ǻ޾׽ĽʳΪͷθĥܣЩܶͻҪá 

֪Ͷķdz޴ڵܺ»ȡֲʳͻҪ⡣оʾҪʳC3ֲʱC3ֲ㣬ҴǶٺݱֲ൱Ϊṩ˳ӪԴͬʱľ԰ڵܺĵ£ǸƷΧֲֵԴ 

༫ػijӣǸЧʳҪ 

ѧĽǶ, ϵͳdzءֲʳԶоܿƲ鶯еij࣬һ󳦷ңʳﳤʱͣڴ˽ͬںߣھֹ״̬ȡʳΧ󣨵ڳ軨ʱȥʳ֤ȱ׽θĥϵͳӶܹٵػȡʳϽʹڵܺĵ£ȡӪ 

ĺϵͳѪϵͳоҲΪʾһȺͻṩҪϢβֹɣֱǸڼ׵ϵ彻Ϳγ, ˵ĸЧϵͳڿȷҪãھͶǷdzҪġ, ȿƺѪϵͳdzػ޺١ҡǻҡáƤܡѪܱں񡢽֯ëϸѪܵ͸, Լ㲿ŵṹڽȺѪҺѭ⡣ 

¹ѧSanderһݼģͻģ5ݻݼɣֳȡʳͷϵͳ³´л5ݼ໥໥áֳݼ˸ɱڿٻָȺȡʳͷݼȡʳļݻСͷ͹㷺ǻ׽ϵͳȱʧʹСͷݻΪܣθĥϵͳȱʧһٳ˿ٽʳϵͳ׽θĥϵͳʳȡʣôʳܹʱͣڷijϵͳУ³´лݼ߻лʺͳ꽵͵Ļлϣȱ֤˿, ּ˳ڵȡʳЩһٳľͻ 

¹ѧͻģ͡Sander et al., 2013 

ͻȻۺõĽлأҲﱾءﱾأοо½鶯ʹСھ׽Ϊ̥, ½жʹС͵͵Ļлʵơھ׽Ϊ˾д½鶯ͣһƣ˾ǰ߸ͣ 

Ȼݻ˷dzЧݾ׽ṹ󣬵Ȼܵ׽Ϊƣ 

ȫʾʹСȻ˽ͻԭ򡣴һǶ, ڿͻصоȻд, ȻޡͻսϻѧϢ, һۺϵģ͡